Born in Pistoia, Italy, Marini attended the Accademia Di Belle Arti in Florence. From about 1922 he devoted himself primarily to sculpture however he continued painting and remained a prolific printmaker. Marini's work is full of symbolism and his own take on mythology. He focused on three continuous themes: the female figure, the horse and rider, dancers and acrobats.
He was awarded the Grand Prize for Sculpture at the Venice Biennale in 1952. A Retrospective of Marini’s work took place at the Kunsthaus Zürich in 1962 and at the Palazzo Venezia in Rome in 1966. In 1973 a permanent installation of his work opened at the Galleria d’Arte Moderna in Milan, and in 1978 a Marini show was presented at the National Museum of Modern Art in Tokyo.
Marini died in Viareggio in 1980. There is a museum dedicated to his work in Florence.